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Grammar and StructureGRAMMAR & STRUCTURE
Common Linking Words and Their Uses

 
 

Form

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

Link independent clauses within a sentence.

Link an independent clause with a dependent clause or phrase within a sentence.

Link independent clauses within a sentence.

Link sentences within a paragraph.


Punctuation

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

Use a comma before a coordinator:

I ate lunch, and I finished my work.

When the dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:

After I ate lunch, I finished my work.

Do not use a comma when the dependent clause is at the end of the sentence:

I finished my work after I ate lunch.

When the transition begins the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:

First, I ate lunch. Then, I finished my work.

When the transition connects two independent clauses, a semi-colon comes before it and a comma follows it:

I ate lunch; afterwards, I finished my work.


Function

Function

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

Showing time:      
- beginning   Before Afterward(s)
At first
Initially

- during

 

 

 

And

 

As
As long as
At the same time (as)
Every time
Since
So long as
The first / second / next / last time
When
Whenever
While

Meanwhile
Meantime
Simultaneously

 

- ending  

By the time
Till
Until

Eventually
Finally


Function

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

Showing a sequence

 

And

After
As soon as
Ever since
Following
Later
Once

 

Next
Subsequently
Then
Thereafter
First
Firstly
Initially
To begin
Next
Second
Secondly
Then
Third
Thirdly
Finally
Last
Lastly

Showing conclusion

So

 

In all
In summation
In summary
In conclusion
To conclude

Showing contrast

 

But
Either ... or
Yet

Although
Despite
Even though
In spite of
Instead of
Though
Whereas
While

By comparison
By contrast
Conversely
However
In contrast
Instead
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
On the contrary
On the other hand
Otherwise

Showing similarity

Neither ... nor
Either ... or

 

In other words
Likewise
Similarly

Adding information

And

 

 

Additionally
Also
Besides
Further
Furthermore
In addition
Moreover

Adding example

 

 

 

For example
For instance
In particular



Function

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

Showing cause

 

For

As a result of
Because
Due to (the fact that)
In order to
Resulting from
Since

 

Showing effect

So

(If) ... then
... resulting in
So ... that
... then

Accordingly
As a result
Consequently
Hence
Therefore
Thus

Showing condition

 

Even if
If ... then
In case
Provided that
Providing
Unless
Whether or not