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Grammar and StructureGRAMMAR & STRUCTURE — Examples
Adverb Phrases

 
 

Example sentences using adverb phrases:

Example

Explanation

While I was waiting for the bus, I saw my neighbour drive by.
While waiting for the bus, I saw my neighbour drive by.

Reduce an adverb clause ONLY when the subject of the adverb clause is the same as the subject of the independent clause.

Subject adverb clause: I
Subject independent clause: I

While I was waiting for the bus, it started to rain.
While waiting for the bus, it started to rain.

Subject adverb clause: I
Subject independent clause: it
This adverb clause can not be reduced.


Example

Explanation

While Tom was watching TV, he ate desert.

While watching TV, Tom ate desert.

When the adverb clause has a "be" verb form, omit the subject and the "be" verb form in the adverb phrase.

"Be" verb form: was

Notice that when the adverb clause names the subject and the independent clause uses a pronoun for the subject, you should move the subject name to the independent clause.

Before I got this job, I didn't have enough money to buy a car.

Before getting this job, I didn't have enough money to buy a car.

When the adverb clause does not have a "be" verb form, omit the subject and change the verb to its -ing form in the adverb phrase.

After Tom ate dinner, he started watching TV.


a) After having eaten dinner, Tom started watching TV.

b) Tom started watching TV after eating dinner.

Adverb clauses of time beginning with "after", "before", "while", and "since" can be reduced to adverb phrases.

a) The adverb phrase can go after the independent clause.

b) All three sentences have the same meaning.

While I was waiting for the bus, I saw my neighbour drive by.

While waiting for the bus, I saw my neighbour drive by.

Waiting for the bus, I saw my neighbour drive by.

"While" may be omitted from an adverb phrase showing time order.

All three sentences have the same meaning.



Example

Explanation

Because he had a car, Tom drove to work.

Having a car, Tom drove to work.

In adverb clauses of cause and effect, participle (-ing) forms of the verb can have the same meaning as "because".

Because he had read that book before, he didn't want to read it again.

Having read that book before, he didn't want to read it again.

Having read that book, he didn't want to read it again.

 

 

"Having" can mean "because" AND "before".

(These three sentences have the same meaning.)

Because she is over eighteen, Sarah can vote in the national elections.

Being over eighteen, Sarah can vote in the national elections.

Over eighteen, Sarah can vote in the national elections.

 

 

"Being" can be used to show cause and effect.

(These three sentences have the same meaning.)