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GRAMMAR & STRUCTURE — Examples
Present Perfect

 
 

Sentences using the present perfect:

Present perfect showing an action that happened at an unknown time in the past

Explanation

I
You
We
They

have studied English.

-- Positive present perfect sentence
-- We do not know when the action (studied English) happened

He
She
(It)

has studied English.

-- Positive present perfect sentence
-- We do not know when the action (studied English) happened

I
You
We
They

have not studied English.

-- Negative present perfect sentence
-- The action never happened in the past

He
She

has not studied English.

-- Negative present perfect sentence
-- The action never happened in the past

Have

I
you
we
they

studied English.

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- We are asking if the action happened some time in the past

Has

he
she

studied English?

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- We are asking if the action happened some time in the past

Have you ever studied English?

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- We are asking if the action happened at any time in the past

What have

I
you
we
they

studied?

-- Present perfect information question
-- We are asking for information about something that happened some time in the past (not specific)

What has

he
she
studied?

-- Present perfect information question
-- We are asking for information about something that happened some time in the past (not specific)


Present perfect showing an action which happened recently and is connected to the present

Explanation

I
You
We
They

have won the lottery.

-- Positive present perfect sentence
-- You won the lottery recently and you still have the money now

He
She

has won the lottery.

-- Positive present perfect sentence
-- The person won the lottery recently and the person still has the money now

I
You
We
They

have not won the lottery.

-- Negative present perfect sentence
-- The lottery happened in the recent past and the people did not win

He
She

has not won the lottery.

-- Negative present perfect sentence
-- The lottery happened in the recent past and the people did not win

Have

I
you
we
they

won the lottery?

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- The lottery happened recently and the people are wondering if they won

Has

he
she

won the lottery?

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- The lottery happened recently and we wonder if these other people have won

What have

I
you
we
they

won?

-- Present perfect information question
-- Asking for information about something that happened recently

What has

he
she
(it)
won?

-- Present perfect information question
-- Asking for information about something that happened recently


Present perfect showing an action which started in the past and continues in the present

Explanation

I
You
We
They

have been here for 10 days.

-- Positive present perfect sentence
-- A person came here 10 days ago, is here now, and will be here in the future

He
She
It

has been here for 10 days.

-- Positive present perfect sentence
-- A person or thing came here 10 days ago, is here now, and will be here in the future

I
You
We
They

have not been here for 10 days.

-- Negative present perfect sentence
-- A person left 10 days ago, is not here now, but might be here in the future

He
She
It

has not been here for 10 days.

-- Negative present perfect sentence
-- A person left 10 days ago, is not here now, but might be here in the future

Have

I
you
we
they

been here for 10 days?

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- A yes / no question asking if the person arrived 10 days ago

Has

he
she
it

been here for 10 days?

-- Present perfect yes / no question
-- Asking if the person arrived 10 days ago

Where have

I
you
we
they

been for 10 days?

-- Present perfect information question
-- The person left 10 days ago and the question asks where the person went

Where has

he
she
it
been for 10 days?

-- Present perfect information question
-- The person or thing left 10 days ago and the question asks where the person or thing went


Present perfect showing an action which started in the past and continues in the present (using "since")

Explanation

You have been here since May 2.
You haven't been here since Saturday.
Have you been here since 2 o'clock?
Where have you been since the last time I saw you?
I have been waiting for the bus since 10 o'clock. It is now 12 o'clock. I have been waiting for the bus for two hours.
Jack has lived in Canada since 1998. It is now 2002. He has been living in Canada for four years.

-- Present perfect statements and questions using "since"
-- When you use "since," use a specific day, date, or time