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GRAMMAR & STRUCTURE — Examples
Linking Words

 
 

Examples of common linking words and their uses:

 
 
Form Usage — Punctuation
Coordinators
Link independent clauses within a sentence.

Use a comma before a coordinator.
Example: I ate lunch, and I finished my work.

Subordinators
Link an independent clause with a dependent clause or phrase within a sentence.

When the dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma.
After I ate lunch, I finished my work.

Do not use a comma when the dependent clause is at the end of the sentence.
I finished my work after I ate lunch.

Transitions
Link independent clauses within a sentence. Link sentences within a paragraph.

When the transition begins the sentence, it should be followed by a comma.
First, I ate lunch. Then, I finished my work.

When the transition connects two independent clauses, a semi-colon comes before it and a comma follows it.
I ate lunch; afterwards, I finished my work.

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing time
Coordinators

During — and

Subordinators

Beginning — before
During — as, as long as, at the same time (as), every time, since, so long as, the first/second/next/last time, when, whenever, while
Ending — by the time, till, until

Transitions

Beginning — afterward(s), at first, initially
During — meanwhile, meantime, simultaneously
Ending — eventually, finally

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing a sequence
Coordinators

and

Subordinators

after, as soon as, ever since, following, later, once

Transitions

next, subsequently, then, thereafter, first, firstly, initially, to begin, next, second, secondly, then, third, thirdly, finally, last, lastly

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing conclusion
Coordinators

so

Transitions

in all, in summation, in summary, in conclusion, to conclude

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing contrast
Coordinators

but, either ... or, yet

Subordinators

although, despite, even though, in spite of, instead of, though, whereas, while

Transitions

by comparison, by contrast, conversely, however, in contrast, instead, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing similarity
Coordinators

neither ... nor, either ... or

Transitions

in other words, likewise, similarly

 
     
 
Form Usage — Adding information
Coordinators

and

Transitions

additionally, also, besides, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover

 
     
 
Form Usage — Adding example
Transitions

for example, for instance, in particular

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing cause
Coordinators

for

Subordinators

as a result of, because, due to (the fact that), in order to, resulting from, since

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing effect
Coordinators

so

Subordinators

(if) ... then, ... resulting in, so ... that, ...then

Transitions

accordingly,as a result, consequently, henc, therefore, thus

 
     
 
Form Usage — Showing condition
Subordinators

even if, if ... then, in case, provided that, providing, unless, whether or not