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University of VictoriaIntroduction to IT English
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List of Commonly Used Linking Words

Function

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

  Link independent clauses within a sentence. Link an independent clause with a dependent clause or phrase within a sentence.

Link independent clauses within a sentence.

Link sentences within a paragraph.
Punctuation

Use a comma before a coordinator:
I researched the topic, and I created the presentation.

When the dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:
After I researched the topic, I created the presentation.

Do not use a comma when the dependent clause is at the end of the sentence:
I created the presentation after I researched the topic.

When the transition begins the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:
First, I researched the topic.
Then, I created the presentation.

When the transition connects two independent clauses, a semi-colon comes before it and a comma follows it:
I researched the topic; afterwards, I created the presentation.

Showing time, beginning, during, ending
  • And
  • Before
  • As
  • As long as
  • At the same time (as)
  • Every time
  • Since
  • So long as
  • The first/second/next/last time
  • When
  • Whenever
  • While
  • By the time
  • Till
  • Until
  • Afterward(s)
  • At first
  • Initially
  • Meanwhile
  • Meantime
  • Simultaneously
  • Eventually
  • Finally
Showing a sequence
  • And
  • After
  • As soon as
  • Ever since
  • Following
  • Later
  • Once
  • Next
  • Subsequently
  • Then
  • Thereafter
  • First
  • Firstly
  • Initially
  • To begin
  • Next
  • Second
  • Secondly
  • Then
  • Third
  • Thirdly
  • Finally
  • Last
  • Lastly
Showing conclusion
  • So
 
  • In all
  • In summation
  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
Showing contrast
  • But
  • Either … or
  • Yet
  • Although
  • Despite
  • Even though
  • In spite of
  • Instead of
  • Though
  • Whereas
  • While
  • By comparison
  • By contrast
  • Conversely
  • However
  • In contrast
  • Instead
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • On the contrary
  • On the other hand
  • Otherwise
Showing similarity
  • Neither … nor
  • Either … or
 
  • In other words
  • Likewise
  • Similarly
Adding information
  • And
 
  • Additionally
  • Also
  • Besides
  • Further
  • Furthermore
  • In addition
  • Moreover
Adding example    
  • For example
  • For instance
  • In particular

Showing cause

  • For
  • As a result of …
  • Because …
  • Due to (the fact that)
  • In order to …
  • Resulting from …
  • Since …
 
Showing effect
  • So
  • (If) … then
  • … resulting in
  • So …that
  • … then
  • Accordingly,
  • As a result,
  • Consequently,
  • Hence,
  • Therefore,
  • Thus,
Showing condition  
  • Even if
  • If … then
  • In case
  • Provided that
  • Providing
  • Unless
  • Whether or not