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Grammar and StructureGRAMMAR & STRUCTURE — Examples


Examples of the functions of participles in sentences:

Participle as part of the continuous verb form:

I am going to school.

Present continuous

I was going to school.

Past continuous

I will be going to school.

Future continuous

Participle as adjective:

The smiling girl is pretty.

Adjective before a noun

The radio is broken.

Adjective after the verb "to be"

Participle as an adjective that describes feelings:

Tom looks bored.

Bored: Describes how Tom feels

Tom is watching a boring movie.

Boring: Describes the movie that causes Tom's boredom

Participles commonly used as adjectives:

amusing / amused
amazing / amazed
boring / bored
exciting / excited
disgusting / disgusted
embarrassing / embarrassed
confusing / confused
fascinating / fascinated
shocking / shocked
depressing / depressed
annoying / annoyed
exhausting / exhausted
frightening / frightened
horrifying / horrified
terrifying / terrified
satisfying / satisfied
discouraging / discouraged

How participles work as adjectives:


  • Verb: To bore
  • Meaning: To make someone feel bored
  • Participles: bored / boring
  • Bored: A person is bored, feels bored
  • Boring: Causes someone to feel bored

Usually a person is "-ed" by something that is "-ing":

  • I was bored by that boring movie.
  • NOT: I was boring by that bored movie.

The child ran laughing and singing around the house.

Participle as adverb

The car parked in the driveway is red.

Participle used in an adjective phrase

Waiting for the bus, I saw my neighbour drive by.

Participle used in an adverb phrase

Seeing is believing.

Participle as gerund, acting as a noun