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Grammar and StructureGRAMMAR & STRUCTURE
Sentence Errors — Fragments



A fragment is a group of words written as one complete sentence, but which does not include an independent clause with a main subject and a main/complete verb.


Students experiencing difficulty.
(experiencing = participle without auxiliary)


There are four common types of fragments:

  1. A dependent clause is written as a complete sentence.
  2. A sentence is missing either a subject or a verb.
  3. A gerund is used incorrectly. Usually this means a participle verb form is used without auxiliary verbs. (A participle is a verb with an -ing or -ed ending, for example: running, hiking, bored, broken.)
  4. A list or example is written as a complete sentence.

Related Sections

Complex Sentences
Independent and Dependent Clauses
Common Linking Words and Their Uses
Simple Sentence Structure