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Nouns can be singular (one) - for example, "one dog" -- or plural (more than one) - for example, "two dogs".


Jason has one dog, and I have two cats.


Plurals --

  • have regular forms:
    • Add "s" to a singular noun.
      telephones, books, songs, jobs
    • Add "es" to words ending in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh.
      gases, watches, boxes, wishes
    • Add "es" to some words that end in "o".
      tomatoes, mosquitoes, potatoes, heroes, echoes
    • Change "y" to "i" and add "es" to words ending in a consonant + "y".
      fly/flies, country/countries, copy/copies, rally/rallies
  • have irregular forms:
    • Change some words ending in "f" to "v" and add "es".
      calf/calves, leaf/leaves, knife/knives, shelf/shelves
    • Do not change some words.
      one sheep/two sheep, one deer/two deer
    • Add (r)en to some words.
      child/children, ox/oxen
    • Change the vowels in some words.
      foot/feet, goose/geese, tooth/teeth, man/men, woman/women, mouse/mice

Related Sections

Count & Non-Count Nouns
Determiners: Articles