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  Examples of different ways infinitives are used:  

I want to go to school.

Infinitive as object of the verb.

To understand English is my goal.
It is my goal to understand English.
Infinitive as subject of the clause. The infinitive can be replaced by "it" as the subject of a sentence, with the infinitive placed after the verb. These two sentences have the same meaning, but the second is more common than the first.
I went to Canada to study English.
I went to Canada in order to study English.
Infinitive used to show purpose, which means it answers the question: why? "In order to" also expresses purpose, so these two sentences have the same meaning.
I am happy to tell you my name. Use an infinitive after certain adjectives -- usually these adjectives describe how a person feels, for example: glad, sorry, ready, lucky, afraid, sad, pleased (Most dictionaries will indicate if an adjective is followed by an infinitive.)
I expect to pass my test tomorrow.

NOT: I expect passing my test tomorrow.
There are many verbs that use infinitives as an object of the verb. "Expect", for example must be followed by an infinitive. A gerund can not follow "expect". (Most dictionaries will indicate if a verb is followed by a gerund or an infinitive.)
I told Max to go to bed. Some verbs are followed by a noun or pronoun and then an infinitive.
Max is too young to stay up until 10 p.m. He must go to bed now.
Use an infinitive with "too" and "enough". "Too" adds a negative meaning to the adjective. This sentence means that Max is very young. He should go to bed before 10 p.m. "Too" usually goes before the adjective.
Cam is old enough to stay up until 10 p.m. He can go to bed at 11 p.m. "Enough" adds a positive meaning to the adjective. It usually goes after the adjective.

Tom saw Mary run down the street.
OR Tom saw Mary running down the street.

Use the simple form, or a gerund, after a verb of perception, such as: see, hear, fell

Tom made Mary stop.

Tom let Mary borrow his car.
Use the simple form after a causative
verb, such as: make, have, let

Use the simple form after: let
Tom told Mary not to run. Place the negative "not" before the infinitive.
Tom appeared to have won the race.

The infinitive can be used in the past: To + have + past participle form of verb
Tom wants his mother to be given the prize money. The infinitive can be used in the passive: To + be + past participle form
His mother was happy to have been given the prize money. The infinitive can be used in the past passive: To + have + been + past participle form